Treatment of Skin Problems: Inflammatory diseases & common Skin disorders
Treatment for skin problems like Psoriasis – Atopic skin inflammation – Dermatitis – Acne – Itching Pruritus – Multi-systemic sclerosis – Seborreia – Scrading – Shingles:
The skin in humans, covers almost the entire surface area of the body and takes up 15% of its weight, is the largest organ in the body.
The skin belongs to the integumentary system, which also includes the different hair, sweat glands, and sensory organs found in the skin. According to many definitions, the skin is also part of the immune system, since many of the white blood cells do not reside in the blood at all but are found in the different tissues of the skin.
The skin white cells belong to the innate immune system, which means that the skin’s protection against harmful infections and chemicals is not specific, but general, and is done indiscriminately. The thickness of the skin varies in the different parts of the body.
What are the known types of cells in the skin and what is the main function of the skin?
These are the types of cells known in the body’s skin:
Epithelial, keratinocytes – (produce Keratin which is a structural protein).
Melanocytes – which produce Melanin which is a black pigment that protects from harmful ultraviolet radiation.
Sweat glands, fatty glands, and hair follicles
Keratinocytes represent the major cell type of the epidermis, the outermost of the layers of the skin, making up about 90 per cent of the cells there. They originate in the deepest layer of the epidermis, the stratum Basale, and move up to the final barrier layer of the skin, the stratum corneum.
Main skin functions can be listed as follows:
Regulates the body’s temperature
Prevent dehydration of the body’s tissues by isolating the extracellular fluid
The skin acts as a sensory organ for the feelings of heat & cold
In addition, the skin is used as a reservoir for nutrients such as fat, water, and salts, as well as where active Vitamin D3 is produced from cholesterol using UV-B radiation. The skin protects the tissues beneath it from mechanical damage, as part of the immune system, and the skin forms the primary barrier to pathogens and chemicals.
The skin structure is divided into three layers:
Upper skin – Epidermis.
The skin – Dermis.
CBD as a treatment for Skin Problems
The skin contains many receptors of the endocannabinoid system CB1 and CB2. The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is involved in many control processes both in the healthy state and in various skin diseases. A 2012 study found for the first time that activating the CB1 receptor suppresses the release of chemokines and cytokines triggering keratinocytes, thereby reducing inflammation caused by cells (T-cells).
Indeed, one of the benefits of CBD in the treatment of skin problems is its anti-inflammatory activity and its activity as an excellent antioxidant capable of eliminating and preventing the accumulation of toxic waste in the body. Ointments and creams containing CBD & Cannabigerol (CBG) to treat skin problems are already on the market and hundreds of thousands of consumers are starting to experience self-care for skin problems with phytocannabinoids [pCbs]. CBD treatment can benefit those who suffer from skin diseases by swallowing CBD capsules or CBD oil as well as ointments, lotions, and skin creams. CBD alleviates the symptoms and sometimes eliminates the diseases: Herpes, Shingles, Eczema, itching, and more. The advancement of the cannabis market for recreational consumption in recent years also exposes people who do not suffer from any disease to the properties of CBD & CBG in healing wounds, scars, burns, over-tanning, and speed skin healing after getting tattoos.
Studies on the relationship between CBD and skin problems
The Endocannabinoid system
A 2009 study first showed the presence of an endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the human skin, which includes the lipid mediator (nerve messengers) Anandamide and 2-AG, the cannabinoid receptors (CB1 & CB2), and the enzymes that synthesize and break them down FAAH and MAGL, respectively. Few studies also revealed that the ECS is involved in many control processes both in the healthy state and in various skin disorders & diseases. A 2011 study used skin-cultured keratinocytes and skin tissue cells and proved that the binding of Anandamide to the TRPV-1 cation channel causes an increase in the concentration of calcium ions within these cells. This increase in intracellular calcium ions prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of keratinocytes during inflammatory skin disease.
It is currently believed that the main physiological activity of the ECS in the skin is in controlling the health & growth of skin cells and balancing the proliferation and differentiation of new skin cells. Moreover, the ECS homeostasis enhances the resistance of the tissue to infections. Damage to this equilibrium may cause various physiological conditions and diseases such as acne (skin eczema), seborrhea, inflammation as a result of an allergy, itching, psoriasis, hair growth disorders, multisystemic sclerosis, and skin cancer (melanoma).
A 2012 study found for the first time that activating the CB1 receptor suppresses the release of keratinocytes-induced chemokines and cytokines, thereby reducing inflammation caused by T-sells
Keratinocytes– Anti-inflammatory Activity
One of the benefits of CBD in the treatment of skin disorders is its anti-inflammatory activity, and its ability to counter oxidative stress and eliminate and prevent the accumulation of toxic waste in the body. It was recently reported that researchers at the University of Colorado determined that CBD is a successful and natural alternative to those suffering from skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. The field of research of PCBs and the treatment of skin diseases is still in its infancy, but many consumers have begun to experiment in the past few years with the use and self-treatment of CBD products intended for the skin – or in the form of oils and capsules which are also very effective in autoimmune skin diseases.
Phytocannabinoids as safe natural, environment-friendly sunscreen
Sunscreen is recently being attempted to create a flavonoid sunscreen because of its properties of absorption of the harmful UVB. UVB radiation is dangerous and can cause mutations in the DNA leading to cancer.
Some PCB’s peak light absorption is 270 nm – the exact wavelength that harms DNA molecules. Phytocannabinoids do not absorb 285 – 315 nm of that activates the conversion of cholesterol to active vitamin D3 in the skin. Today, mineral [Zinc oxide, Titanium oxide] and chemical sunscreens have a wide range of light absorption from UV-A to UV-B, and therefore impair the production of important vitamin D in the skin and also prevent melanin production in melanocytes. This means that CBD absorbs the radiation that can be harmful to the genetic material [DNA] – while at the same time soothes inflammation, has strong antioxidant action and maintains skin health.
Mechanisms of action of CBD
In the treatment of Skin disorders
As already mentioned, the skin contains many receptors of the ECS – CB1 and CB2 as well as many ion channels & the orphan receptor – GPR55
Endocannabinoid Receptors in Skin
ECS is found in keratinocytes, sensory nerve cells, hair follicle cells, immune cells, and sebocytes that produce the milk (Sebaceous glands). In addition to the endocannabinoid [eCB] receptors on the surface of skin cell membranes, various ion channels are expressed: TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPA1, & TRPM8.
Cannabidiol for inhibition of overactivated sebocytes
Adding CBD to human skin sebocytes cells in culture inhibited the formation of fat caused by the effect of arachidonic acid (AA) in combination with linoleic acid and testosterone (the male sex hormone). At the same time, CBD has delayed the proliferation of sebocytes by binding & activating the TRPV4 ion channel. This ion channel prevents the activation of the ERK1/2 MAPK (Mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway and thus the nuclear receptor is not formed. CBD caused a reduction in the production of the nuclear receptor-interacting protein (NRIP1), which affects lipid and glucose metabolism. CBD inhibits the production of fats in sebocytes (the cells that produce fat).
Suppression of the production of keratin
It turns out later in a study that phytocannabinoids play a role in the process of epigenetic control (external intervention in the hereditary mechanism) on gene expression in skin cells. CBD has been found to increase the methylation of the DNA that encodes the gene for keratin (an important protein for skin structure) thus creating less keratin. Suppression of the production of the keratin molecule causes the healing of various skin diseases.
Inflammatory Skin Diseases and common Skin Disorders that CBD Is effective In treating
Many people face inflammatory skin diseases. These diseases cause disruption in the aesthetic appearance, and often also suffering and feeling of discomfort in the skin. The exact causes of the appearance of these diseases are unclear, but what they all have in common is that they are chronic, are related to poor immune system response, and are accompanied by an inflammatory state of the skin and pain.
Mild dermatitis is an essential immune system response and aims to protect the body from intrusions (infections) from viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Sometimes, the inflammatory response gets out of control and becomes more severe. In this situation, the “army” of the immune system continues to operate inadvertently, damaging the healthy tissues of the skin.
Psoriasis is a skin disease that causes red, itchy scaly patches, most commonly on the knees, elbows, trunk, and scalp. Psoriasis is a common, long-term (chronic) disease with no cure. It tends to go through cycles, flaring for a few weeks or months, then subsiding for a while or going into remission. Psoriasis is characterized by the abnormally excessive and rapid growth of the epidermal layer of the skin. Abnormal production of skin cells and an overabundance of skin cells result from the sequence of pathological events in psoriasis. The sequence of pathological events in psoriasis is thought to start with an initiation phase in which an event (skin trauma, infection, or drugs) leads to activation of the immune system and then the maintenance phase consisting of the chronic progression of the disease. Skin cells are replaced every 3–5 days in psoriasis rather than the usual 28–30 days. These changes are believed to stem from the premature maturation of keratinocytes induced by an inflammatory cascade in the dermis involving dendritic cells, macrophages, and T cells. These immune cells move from the dermis to the epidermis and secrete inflammatory chemical signals (cytokines) such as tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and interleukin-22. These secreted inflammatory signals are believed to stimulate keratinocytes to proliferate. One hypothesis is that psoriasis involves a defect in regulatory T cells and the regulatory cytokine interleukin-10. Gene mutations of proteins involved in the skin’s ability to function as a barrier have been identified as markers of susceptibility for the development of psoriasis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) released from dying cells acts as an inflammatory stimulus in psoriasis and stimulates the receptors on certain dendritic cells, which in turn produce the cytokine interferon-α. In response to these chemical messages from dendritic cells and T cells, keratinocytes also secrete cytokines such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumour necrosis factor-α, which signal downstream inflammatory cells to arrive and stimulate additional inflammation. Dendritic cells bridge the innate immune system and adaptive immune system. They are increased in psoriatic lesions and induce the proliferation of T cells and type 1 helper T cells (Th1). Targeted immunotherapy, as well as ultraviolet A (UV-A) therapy, can reduce the number of dendritic cells and favours a Th2 cell cytokine secretion pattern. Psoriatic T cells move from the dermis into the epidermis and secrete interferon-γ and interleukin-17.
Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease in which skin cells change at an increased rate. The disease manifests itself in cutaneous layers, usually red-purple, covered in scale. About 30% of psoriasis patients also develop psoriatic arthritis.
Causes of the disease:
A traumatic event of the digestive system (usually due to taking antibiotics) that is followed by the body failing to digest certain proteins.
Outbreak due to stressful situations.
There is a link between impaired liver function, protein digestion problems, intestinal blood poisoning, excessive consumption of alcohol and animal fats, and psoriasis development.
The statistics found that women who smoke develop psoriasis in a higher percentage compared to the percentage of the disease in non-smokers.
Psoriasis is not contagious, and there is no fear of contact (even in the lesion themselves) from a sick person. The direct cause of the disease is unknown and the causes of its formation are usually based on statistical findings. The disease occurs in 3% of the world’s population. The Israeli psoriasis society estimates that there are about 240,000 patients in Israel. It appears more in people of European descent. It can appear at any age.
Psoriasis remains one of the most researched chronic inflammatory skin diseasesץ Early murine models of psoriasis and response of the disease to immunosuppressive therapies supported the idea of psoriasis as an activated T-cell disease.
Despite the undisputed fact that activated T cells are crucial to the development and persistence of psoriatic lesions, the disease pathophysiology cannot be explained by the role of T lymphocytes exclusively. Other resident skin cells, including (but not limited to) keratinocytes and dendritic cells, contribute to the development of psoriatic plaques. This cellular contribution is combined with a strong, complex genetic influence.
CBD as a treatment for Psoriasis
The endocannabinoid system monitors the production of different types of keratin in the skin. A recent study found that activating the ECS with THC suppresses the production of K6 and K16 keratin, which are increased in production in psoriasis. It is recommended to try CBD treatment for psoriasis patients. The ways of consumption can be in swallowing a capsule, as a food additive, or in oil, and of course especially in dermal cream.
Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease characterized by skin cell overproduction and includes the proliferation of keratinocytes. These cells will develop and form scale-like patches on the surface of the skin. From there, they will result in redness and inflammation. Inflammation occurs when white blood cells see the skin cells as foreign and start attacking. The Journal of Dermatological Science in 2007 published a report detailing the effects that various cannabinoids have on keratinocyte proliferation. It concluded that CBD, CBN, THC, and CBG show promise when treating psoriasis due to them inhibiting keratinocyte proliferation.
Atopic Dermatitis – Dermatitis
Atopic dermatitis, also known as skin asthma or skin eczema, is a skin disease that usually appears in childhood. In some cases, it continues into adulthood as a chronic disease whose severity sometimes weakens over the years. Atopic dermatitis may be exacerbated by allergenic factors, as part of an allergy attack that also includes allergic rhinitis and other characteristics, or without an allergy attack.
Atopic dermatitis has an indirect hereditary background, meaning that there is not necessarily a relative who has the disease, but it has been shown that children of parents with asthma or a history of allergies are more likely to develop the disease. In industrialized countries, 5% of men and 11% of women suffer from an external allergen that triggers dermatitis. symptoms include dry, irritated, itchy skin, and itchy injuries. Most of the affected areas are in the folds of the knee and face of the arm, face, thighs, abdomen, and back.
CBD as a treatment for Dermatitis
In animals, without CB1 and CB2 receptors (knock-out) the induced dermatitis disease was extremely acute. From this, we learn that the endocannabinoid system protects the skin from dermatitis. In contrast, mice without the FAAH enzyme (that breaks down Anandamide) showed a decrease in skin allergic reaction. That is, the longer anandamide remains in the body, and the longer its duration of the operation – the skin inflammation decreases. Further research showed that treatment with the antagonist of the central cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) exacerbated the disease, proving that the ECS protects the skin from inflammation caused by contact with an allergenic substance.
Acne is inflammation of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles. During this time, excessive lipid secretion occurs from the sebaceous glands that combine with dead skin cells (or other contaminants) and cause the follicles of hairs to be blocked.
Fat secretions accumulate under the clogged pore, providing a favourable environment for the proliferation of acne bacteria, Propionibacterium acnes. In adults, the phenomenon of the wounds mainly attacks the skin of the face, but may also spread to the skin of the shoulders, back, and chest. It appears mainly in adolescence, as a result of a poor response to the testosterone hormone.
The body’s response to the male sex hormone usually stabilizes over time, and symptoms disappear or calm down. The wounds of adulthood – Acne Vulgaris, appear mainly after adolescence but there are cases of acne vulgaris appearing in the 30s.
Several factors are related to the acne phenomenon:
Active hormonal activity, as during puberty or menstrual cycles
Mental stress, through increasing hormonal output from adrenal glands
Sebaceous gland hyperactivity – secondary to increase in hormonal factors
Build-up of dead skin cells
Bacteria in the pores of the skin, to which the body becomes allergic
Irritation or itching of the skin that may lead to an inflammatory response
Use of certain medications such as steroids
CBD as a treatment of Acne
In a 2014 study, CBD was found to inhibit fat production in the body. Treatment of CBD in human cultured sebocytes, decreased lipogenic activity (formation of fats) of various substances such as arachidonic acid (AA) in combination with testosterone and linolenic acid. CBD treatment suppressed the proliferation of sebocytes through the operation of TRPV4 ion channels which suppresses the action of ERK1/2 – (transcription factor in the cell nucleus) – this causes a decrease in glucose & lipid production in the cells that form acne.
Itching – Pruritus
Itching is a very common symptom. The source of the sensation at the free nerve endings is located in the lower area of the epidermis and the connection area of the Epidermis with the Dermis.
Itching may be a symptom of the following diseases and conditions:
Skin disease like eczema (atopic dermatitis)
Allergy to various factors
Insect bites or Scabies (a contagious skin disease in which tiny parasites penetrate the skin)
Certain chronic diseases like liver disease
Hormonal changes in the body such as changes that occur during menopause or during pregnancy
CBD as an itch therapy
Medical cannabis ointments have been on the market for several years and the consumer club is growing exponentially. Consuming CBD oil in drops or evaporation of CBD flowers soothes the feelings of itching. The anti-inflammatory properties of CBD make it very valuable when it comes to “first aid to the skin”.
CBD soothing “burning” skin, it is a powerful disinfectant to open wounds, aids control inflammatory response of the body, and is analgesic. Plant-based CBD ointment or oil droplets on a bandage will quickly and thoroughly treat common skin problems.
It is a chronic autoimmune disease whose cause is unknown. The disease is characterized by the thickening of the skin as a result of the accumulation of collagen fibres which is the main supporting protein of connective tissues in the affected areas. The decline of collagen fibres occurs in the skin, in the walls of small blood vessels, and the internal organs. As a result, a disturbance is created in the supply of blood to the tissues, and at the end of the process of scarring the vital organs – which may include the lungs, heart, kidneys, digestive system, and more. The term scleroderma means “hard skin”, in the Greek language (sclerosis = stiff, drama= skin). The term comes to indicate the hardness and condensation of the skin, which is a prominent sign of the disease.
CBD as a treatment of Multi-Systemic Sclerosis
Cannabidiol suppresses increased production of collagen while at the same time it calms inflammation. The mechanisms of action of CBD in the treatment of multi-systemic sclerosis include the activation of two protein targets: CB2 and PPARγ that are responsible for lowering inflammatory and fibrotic activity that are the main cause of skin sclerosis.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ or PPARG), also known as the glitazone reverse insulin resistance receptor, or NR1C3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 3) is a type II nuclear receptor (protein regulating genes) that in humans is encoded by the PPARG gene.
PPARG is mainly present in adipose tissue, colon, and macrophages. Two isoforms of PPARG are detected in humans and the mouse: PPAR-γ1 (found in nearly all tissues except muscle) and PPAR-γ2 (mostly found in adipose tissue and the intestine).
Lichen Planus is an idiopathic skin disease associated with chronic skin cells proliferation. Lichen planus is a condition that can cause swelling and irritation in the skin, hair, nails, and mucous membranes. On the skin, lichen planus usually appears as purplish, itchy, flat bumps that develop over several weeks.
It is one of 4 diseases in the group of pepolosquamatic diseases (a group of diseases in which there is a manifestation in the form of layers covered in scales) along with psoriasis, phthiriasis rés pilaris, and psoriasis rosacea. The disease damages the skin, mucous membranes, hair and nails, and the mucous membrane that observes organs such as the respiratory, reproductive, and urinary traction, and is accompanied by a strong tingling.
CBD as a treatment of Lichen Planus
There is a lot of evidence on the internet of people who have begun self-treatment for this disease from which they suffer. Here, too, the reports are extremely encouraging.
Seborrheic dermatitis, a sebaceous gland dermatitis, is chronic dermatitis caused by the over-activity of the sebaceous gland in the dermis. The inflammation appears mainly in the face and head, but may also appear in other areas of the body rich in sebaceous glands such as shoulders, upper back, armpit, eyelids, and groin. The symptoms of inflammation are only visible after a long period of neglect and manifest themselves in reddish and scaly skin in the area of the disease although irritation and itching will be felt from the beginning.
The problems with this syndrome are mainly itching and irritation in the skin, an aesthetic problem of red skin and peeling, a burning sensation in the skin, and the appearance of dandruff and their fall on the clothes.
Herpesvirus is a family of viruses that cause various diseases (such as “shingles”) in humans and animals. the word “herpes” refers mainly to the virus “Herpes simplex”, which manifests itself mainly in blisters on the skin or mucosa, especially in the area of the lips, eyelids, or genitals.
Herpes simplex 1 is the main cause of blisters characteristic of the disease in the lip area. It is also acquired more easily because of its visible location. Herpes simplex 2’s blisters are mostly manifested in the genital area, and it’s known as an STD. Herpes simplex is a highly contagious disease, which usually passes through skin contact with the skin of a sick person or sometimes through a commonly shared object (lipstick, hookah, joint, etc.).
The virus passes through very tiny cracks in the skin but is unable to penetrate through a completely healthy piece of skin. The hereditary genetic substance of the virus is maintained as a circuital DNA in the nerve cells in the ganglion of the sympathetic nervous system and erupts from them back to the skin area occasionally and sometimes causes diseases. high percentages of the population are infected with the virus, although many symptoms are rarely expressed, if at all.
Herpes simplex is a viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. Infections are categorized based on the part of the body infected. Oral herpes involves the face or mouth. It may result in small blisters in groups often called cold sores or fever blisters or may just cause a sore throat. Genital herpes, often simply known as herpes, may have minimal symptoms or form blisters that break open and result in small ulcers. These typically heal over two to four weeks. Tingling or shooting pains may occur before the blisters appear. Herpes cycles between periods of active disease followed by periods without symptoms. The first episode is often more severe and may be associated with fever, muscle pains, swollen lymph nodes, and headaches. Over time, episodes of active disease decrease in frequency and severity.
There are two types of herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 more commonly causes infections around the mouth while HSV-2 more commonly causes genital infections. They are transmitted by direct contact with body fluids or lesions of an infected individual. Transmission may still occur when symptoms are not present. Genital herpes is classified as a sexually transmitted infection/ disease [STD]. It may be spread to an infant during childbirth. After infection, the viruses are transported along sensory nerves to the nerve cell bodies, where they reside lifelong. Causes of recurrence may include decreased immune function, stress, and excessive sunlight exposure. Oral and genital herpes is usually diagnosed based on the presenting symptoms. The diagnosis may be confirmed by viral culture or detecting herpes DNA in fluid from blisters. Testing the blood for antibodies against the virus can confirm a previous infection but will be negative in new infections.
Daily antiviral medication taken by someone who has the infection can reduce spread. There is no available vaccine and once infected, there is no cure. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) and topical lidocaine may be used to help with the symptoms. Treatments with antiviral medication such as acyclovir or valaciclovir can lessen the severity of symptomatic episodes. Worldwide rates of either HSV-1 or HSV-2 are between 60% and 95% in adults. HSV-1 is usually acquired during childhood. Rates of both increase as people age. Rates of HSV-1 are between 70% and 80% in populations of low socioeconomic status and 40% to 60% in populations of improved socioeconomic status. An estimated 536 million people worldwide (16% of the population) were infected with HSV-2 as of 2003 with greater rates among women and those in the developing world. Most people with HSV-2 do not realize that they are infected.
Shingles – herpes Zoster
Caused by the Varicella Zoster Virus – VZV, which belongs to the herpes family. The virus causes two known diseases. First exposure to the varicella-zoster virus is caused by chickenpox, usually in childhood. After the disease, the virus does not leave the body but remains dormant in the ganglions of sensory neurons in the body along the spinal cord. When the virus erupts in the body again (an action known as reactivation), shingles disease is caused. Initial symptoms of shingles are not unique to this disease and can manifest themselves only in headaches and fever. Usually, there may be disturbances in the sensation and intense pain that precede the rash in the days and sometimes constitute the only sign of the flare-up.
A blister and painful skin rash appear. The rash or skin disease may appear in the chest, back, abdomen, head, face, arms, and even legs, according to the location of the infected nerves. The blisters disappear within 3-4 weeks and can remain small, bright, or dark scars, instead of blisters. In most people, the pain will pass with the blisters’ disappearances. In some patients, there will be a pain for a long time – weeks to years.