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Cannabis has been used since the dawn of history for a variety of uses, including the production of fibre and ropes, seed oil, oil for medicinal purposes and as a psychoactive substance.
The seeds of the cannabis plant have no psychoactive effect and are nutritious and high in protein and consumed as food for humans and animals.
In the inflorescences of the cannabis plant, three main chemical families of substances have been identified: terpenoids, flavonoids and cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids).
About 165 known cytocannabinoids exist in the plant, the main and most common of which are THC and CBD.
The first THC has effects of an intoxicating substance and the second is CBD no.
Since it is one species, hemp and marijuana are the same plant with different concentrations of active substances. Hemp is a cannabis plant that contains high concentrations of CBD and extremely low concentrations of THC up to 0.3%, and is legal and approved for use in many countries (and their number is steadily increasing), so most of the oils containing CBD currently on the market are extracted from the hemp plant. Hemp was used in the past, and is now used as a raw material for dozens of industries and can be produced from thousands of different products such as ropes, fabrics, bricks for construction, fuel and more.
CBD derived from the hemp plant is the same as that produced from marijuana.
Cannabis plant containing high concentrations of THC and relatively low concentrations of CBD. Marijuana or Ganja usually refers to गांजा the inflorescence of the plant. The cannabis drug is present in various forms of processing, and its consumption is carried out by way of smoking and inhalation, evaporation or eating (after processing). Its effect usually takes several hours, and is often described as intensifying sensations (for better or worse).
Both hemp and marijuana have the same molecular composition but produce different concentrations of CBD and THC and are actually chemical VARIANTS = Chemovars. Or Chemical Phenotypes.
Despite the uncertainty regarding the thousands of “varieties” developed annually worldwide for recreational and industrial purposes, the latest genetic research has shown that this is one species. THC is abundant in some non-hemp cannabis strains, while CBD is found in high concentrations in hemp plants rather than marijuana. In growing non-hemp cannabis, they try to maximize THC concentrations in order to increase psychoactive effects.
The concentration of THC in Hamp is very low, and in fact CBD is the most concentrated active substance in hemp plants.
For a cannabis plant to be classified as hemp, it must contain THC at a dose less than 0.3%.
CBD is a photocannabinoid, a terrapheno phenolic molecule made of 21 carbon atoms, which is formed as a result of decarboxylation (removing carbon dioxide heating in the presence of oxygen) from the substance of origin – cannabidiolic acid (CBDA).
CBD is not linked to the receptors of the CB1 or CB2 system but operates through a large number of additional mechanisms of action that are recently exposed in scientific research. Cannabediol does not cause “mestalating” (INTOXICATING-NON) effects and does not feel the feeling of elation (HIGH) in its effect at all. Cannabeidol is the second major ingredient in the cannabis plant, has no intoxicating effect, and has even been tested in some studies as an antipsychotic. In recent years, the discourse and research of cannabidiol has increased and its inclusion in the law is expanding in many countries around the world.
CBD originates from CBDA.
In fresh samples of the plant (RAW), most CBD is held in its acidic form, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA).
The substance passes during decarboxylation and releases a carbon dioxide molecule (removal of the carboxyl group – oxygen attached to cooH hydrogen) and becomes CBD.
The Phyto-cannabinoid is a trapeno-phenolic molecule. Phenol is the name of an aromatic organic compound formulated with C6H5OH. Phenol has a relatively simple structure: a benzene ring to which the hydroxyl group is associated, and is an important functional group in many organic compounds.
The phanol, as a functional group, can be associated with different orientations that affect, among other things, the pH of the molecule as a whole.
Each such situation adds a different prefix to the panol, in the standard name of the molecule: when the panol is related to the molecule through the carbon adjacent to the carbon of the hydroxyl, the prefix “ortho” is added, with between these two carbons one additional carbon “meta”, and when there are two carbons between them, a situation in which the hydroxyl carbon is precisely opposite the carbon associated with the molecule, another is “para”.
Phenol is associated with turpnoid formed during the biosynthesis of pitocannabinoid.
Up to date, 167 Phyto-cannabinoids (Phyto = plant) have been found in the cannabis plant, which are rare pre-phenolic compounds in nature.
Phyto-cannabinoids are hydrophobic substances and therefore soluble in oil and are infured with the help of a polar solvent.
Of the 165 Phyto-cannabinoids, the three most
common plants have been studied to date:
Tetra hydro-Cannabinol (THC) Cannabidiol (CBD) Cannabinol
1. Phytocannabinoids – (Phyto = coming from the plant) These are the cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant.
2. Synthetic cannabinoids – created in the laboratory by hand, some with a molecular resemblance to natural phyto-cannabinoids and some without structural similarities – but they bind to the target proteins – the endocannabinoid receptors in the body.
3. Endocannabinoids – (endo = coming from within, coming from the body): Cannabinoids
formed in the human body, fatty
acids of which are best known are: Anandamide (affluent ethanol archidonyl AEA) and ARACHIDONIL GLYCEROL (2-AG).
Cannabinoids affect the human body as a result of linking to endocannabinoid receptors (internal) across the memb rays of different cells.
Two Endocannabinoid receptors
are known: CB1 (central) found
in the brain and nervous system at high concentrations and CB2 (peripheral) found mainly in the periphery and immune cells.
The term “intoxicating” refers to the effect of the feeling of intoxication or “levitation” (High) on the brain as a result of the use of cannabis or other drugs. The feeling of intoality stems from the association of certain molecules in the cannabis plant to the receptors of the endocannabinoid system found in the human body. The system receptors found in the brain and central nervous system are called CB1 and are associated with a high affinity with the molecule THC.
Cannabidiol (CBD), on the other hand, does not cause “mestal” effects and does not feel high sensation in its effect at all, because it is not associated with these receptors. The CBD mechanisms of operation work differently from the mechanisms of action of THC and therefore many consumers of CBD products are initially surprised by the fact that there is indeed no feeling of intoxication in taking the oil or any other form of consumption. However, it would be wrong to say that CBD is not psychoactive at all.
CBD is characterized as a psychoactive but non-intoxicating compound that means that it affects the brain and nervous system but indirectly does not change cognitive functions and does not change the perception of reality.
1. A substance designed to affect the central nervous system for a medical or medical purpose in order to cause a change in brain function on its components, resulting in changes in consciousness, perception, mood or behaviour. Many psychoactive substances are drugs: A large group of psychoactive substances consists of prescription opioid painkillers used in many medical branches.
Anesthetics and pain medications: Most of them are based on opioid substances, which are psychoactive substances. Some of the drugs from the opioid group, of natural or semi-synthetic origin, are also highly sought after by drug consumers, because they can also function as psychoactive drugs. Heroin, which is a street drug, dropped out of conventional medicine decades ago. Natural opium is also very limitedly used in modern medicine.
Neurological drugs – such as antiepileptics, antiferkinesis, for the treatment of epilepsy and Parkinson’s.
Anticholinergic drugs also some of the natural or synthetic hormones and their derivatives such as corticosteroids, hormonal or other preparations used in protective gland disorders, etc. antihypyretic drugs, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, antibiotics, anti-parasite and fungic drugs, chemotherapy drugs against cancerous tumors, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, drugs used in the treatment of drug withdrawal.
This group belongs to:
Anexiolyte drugs: Drugs used to reduce anxiety like benzodiazepines and barbiturates.
Stimulating drugs: Substances that stimulate brain activity but do not affect the perception of reality. Examples: amphetamines, caffeine, cocaine, nicotine.
Antidepressants: Including sedatives, sleep medications, and opioids. This group lists all sedatives, sleep pro-sleepers, anxiety reducers, and anesthetics, which sometimes cause perceptual changes and sometimes provoke feelings of euphoria.
In the past two years, many countries around the world have recognized CBD as a psychoactive but non-intoxicating drug with a particularly high safety profile, which does not change the perception of reality and/or changes cognitive functions, which does not develop dependence and addiction and without negative side effects.
2. A substance that may cause side effects or poisoning with mental expressions. The nickname drugs of abuse, Substances of abuse, which in modern times is usually given a negative connotation, is used to indicate psychoactive substances that are usually used outside the medical framework, as “street drugs” of plant or synthetic origin for the purpose of achieving pleasure, rapid increase in mood and desire, changes in consciousness, (recreational drug use), increased alertness and some of them have the potential for harmful use , mental or physical dependence, poisoning effects such as intoxication or the lucinate state and therefore also called “intoxicating drugs” or “addictive” Since they are most often sold on the black market by drug dealers they are also called “street drugs”.
This group belongs to:
drug empathogens (amphetamines)-anticogens: Phethylamines like MDMA, MDA.
Lucinogenic drugs : Which include psychedelics, dissociative drugs, and delerianants. This group lists all the materials that cause unusual changes in the perception of reality, space and time, and emotion. Examples: Psilocybin, LSD, Selvia Divinrum, and Mescaline.
The main psychoactive ingredient in the cannabis plant. First isolated in 1964, in its pure form, by Israeli chemists Raphael Meshulam, Yehiel Gaoni, Habib Edrei and their colleagues at the Weizmann Institute of Science, then part of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
When the THC is cold it is glazed solid, when heated becomes sticky and tirey. When synthetically formed, it’s officially called dronbinole.
It is available by prescription doctor in the United States and Canada under the brand name Marinol.
Because it is classified as an aromatic terraphenoid, THC has a very low ability to dissolve in water, but a good ability to dissolve in organic dissolves, especially oils and alcohol.
Cannabigerol (CBG) is the non-acidic form, i.e. neutral, of cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), which is a “parent molecule” from which all other molecules are formed in the cannabis plant (Mother Cannabinoids molecule) and is found in it in minimal quantities. During the growth of the plant and especially during the flowering period, cannabigerol becomes using enzymes into other cannabinoids, mainly THCA, CBDA and CBCA (cannabichromenic acid) until at the end of plant growth a concentration of less than 1% CBG is usually found in the plant.
Made from a plant that produces a complete composition of cannabinoids, terpenoids, flavonoids and bleeds. The inflorescence of the plant passes through a common and followed by decarboxylation. Full spectrum oil contains the richest and fullest possible composition of the hemp plant.
This oil is made from natural CBD which is distilled from the cannabis plant.
This means that this oil does not contain terpenes and other cannabinoids, is odourless and tasteless and completely THC-free.
See: CBD Oil
The Endo-cannabinoid system in the human body consists of ligands: anandamide and 2-AG, their coltans, the enzymes that break them down, and the carrier proteins that transport them into the cell. It is a central internal system that affects a very wide range of biological and chemical processes in the body and is a decisive factor in the health and integrity of the functioning of the systems in the body. The endocannabinoid system in the body maintains the balance of homeostasis substances through the entire body. It is this balance that allows the body to work in the most healthy way.
The endo-cannabinoid system in the human body serves as a menstruary, and its main function is to bring the body and mind into balance— homeostasis.
The mechanism of action of endocannabinoids is rare in nature, becoming the mechanism of action of the other neuro messengers and is called an “inverse signal” – RETROGRADE SIGNALING.
Cannabinoids affect the human body as a result of linking to endocannabinoid receptors (internal) across the memb rays of different cells. Two endocannabinoid receptors are known: CB1 (central) found in the brain and nervous system at high concentrations and CB2 (peripheral) found mainly in the periphery and immune cells.
Our bodies contain endocannabinoids, fatty acids, naturally produced molecular compounds, the most commonly known of which are: anandamide (affluent ethanol archidonyl AEA) and ARACHIDONIL GLYCEROL) 2-AG).
Endocannabinoids bind and activate the two cannabinoid receptors in our bodies. Despite the obvious differences in their chemical structure, both endo and some exo-(phyto)-cannabinoids bind to the same receptors in our bodies:
THC is associated with high affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors, while CBD is not linked to them at all and its mechanisms of action differ and are not related to these receptors. The pharmacological activity of CBD is very interesting, since it does not work directly on CB1 and CB2 receptors, but it can block the activity of certain compounds that activate these receptors, such as THC.
FATY ACID AMIDE HYDROLASE – FAAH breaks down anandamide and 2AG, thus ending their operation with synapse quickly. Cannabidiol inhibits this enzyme (FAAH) and thus increases the pain-soothing and soothing activity of endocannabinoids through the endocannabinoid receptors.
Neurotransmitter is a molecule that passes between a neuron and any target cell through the synapse. The target cell can be another nerve cell, a muscle cell or a cell in the lout that cones insematants. Key brain systems that underpin cognition, emotion and motivation are shaped by the primary systems of neuroconductors. Therefore, it is difficult to speculate on the neural origins of human behaviour without understanding their role.
The neurotransmitters are synthesised and stored in a synaptic bladder, which is located at the axon end of a nerve cell. A nerve impulse transmitted through the axon of the presynaptic neuron causes the release of the neurotransmitter into the synaptic interval. In this way, the electrical signal is translated into a chemical signal. The molecules of the neuroscircle communicate to the receptors located on the surface of the post-Synapse target cell. This link activates ion ducts, which generate synaptic electrical potential in the target cell. The neuroconductors are the chemical messengers of the brain. They allow the transmission of messages between neurons in the nervous system through the process of synaptic transfer. The neurovixin could have an inhibitory or stimulating effect on the target cell.
The effect of neuroconductors focuses solely on the post-synaptic target cell because their concentration is the highest. The gaping process causes the dilution of the excreted neuro-condescenation. This process intensifies as the distance from the synapse increases, so that the concentration of the neuroscientary condit outside the synapse aspires to zero. In this way, the neuroscir pull secreted into a particular synapse will not be able to affect neighbouring synapses. In order for the activation of the target cell, the amount of neuroscientist that is released from the presynaptic cell must be sufficient to bring the electrical voltage of the receptor cell to its threshold value. The threshold value of each cell is affected by its rest voltage. If the voltage is lower than the threshold value, the target cell will not be activated.
Transferring a neural signal in this form is called Anterograde signalling
(Terpene) or – terpenoids, are a group of organic compounds composed of repetitive units of isoprene (C5H8). When it comes to pure isoprene units associated with each other, the substance terpene is called; When there are slight changes in the isoprene units (the addition of oxygen atoms, for example) it is called the substance Terpenoid or Isoprenoid. Large terpenes may contain dozens of isopran units. All terpenes are synthesize, using induced metabolic pathways, macastil CoA. The acetyl units gradually join together, gradually forming a terpene. Sometimes the isoprene chains close to the ring, making it difficult to identify the compound as a terpene at first glance. The different terpenes are divided into groups according to the number of isoprene units that make them up.
Terpenes are mainly produced by plants and constitute secondary metabolites. Many lubricants, fragrance, protection and colour, as well as essential oils, are terpenes. High-concentration terpenes can be extracted from the resin of trees, especially conifers (see turpentine). Rubber is a polytrapene containing dozens of isoprene units. Carotenoids are a group of dyes (pigments) composed of eight isoprene units that provide yellow, orange and red colours for fruits, flowers, flowers, and other structures in the plant. Many terpenes are an ingredient in alkaloids, the largest group of secondary metabolites in plants.
Plant flavour and smell molecules found in any “normal” flower also help strengthen the effects of the cannabis plant in their synergical action with cannabinoids to create its many effects and its many benefits. Often the terpenoids have a strong scent that evaporates quickly.
Decarboxylation is a heating process performed to make the cannabinoids found in the plant. Cannabinoid acids are psychoactively active. In this process, the COOH cooxyl group is removed from the rest of the molecule. A COH group that was
attached to the A ring, thus breaking down the same acids into active cannabinoids.
Flavonoids or bioflavonoids (Latin for flavus, yellow), formerly known as “vitamin P”, are a group of compounds synthesize by plants and found in fruits and vegetables. Flavonoids are secondary metabolites, which means that they are not immediately essential to the life of the plant cell. At the same time, they have several functions: pigments of plants that produce a red or blue yellow colour help attract pollinatory animals.
Attracting symbiotic bacteria called rhizobium and rejecting parasites.
Laboratory conditions showed antibacterial ability and rejection of fungi in plants.
The flavonoids were discovered during the 1930s by the Hungarian biochemist Albert Saint-Geirgi, who called them vitamin P.
Cannabinol is a psychoactive compound found in minimal amounts in the cannabis plant and for the most part in cannabis that is stored under unsuitable conditions.
Unlike the rest of the cannabinoids CBN is not created directly from cannabigerol (cannabigerol- CBG) or cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) but as a sub-product of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid.
CBN is the active substance that is exhausted in the process of de-carboxylation from the substance of origin CBNA.
CBN functions as a partial agonist for the endocannabinoid system CB1 receptors but has been associated with a higher affinity for CB2 receptors.
Relative to THC, cannabinol has a much lower affinity for receptors in the endocannabinoid system.
The mechanism of action of cannabinoids is rare in nature, becoming the mechanism of action of the other neuro messengers and is called the “inverse signal” RETROGRADE SIGNALING.
Endo-cannabinoid is produced in the post-synaptic nerve cell while the appropriate receptor is found in the presynaptic nerve cell.
In nerve cells that release the soothing neurotransmitter GAMA AMINO BUTIRIC ACID – GABA cannabinoids will prevent (suppress) further release of the soothing neurotransmitter and thus the overall effect will be stimulating.
In nerve cells that release the stimulant neurotransmitter GLUTAMATE – Glu the cannabinoid will suppress
and prevent the release of the stimulant nerve messenger – thus the overall effect will be soothing. It is this balance that allows the body to work in the most healthy way.
Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid that exists in all animal realms: prokriots, single-celled aocriots, and all multicellular aocriots, including plants. GABA is a derivative of the amino acid glutamate. In animals GABA is the most common inhibiting neuro-conductor in the central nervous system and brain. Accordingly, most inhibiting synapses in the brain use GABA. GABA-sensitive neurons are concentrated mainly in brain regions such as the oceut lost, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus.
The drug pycrotoxin, which blocks GABA receptors, causes convulsions because muscle movement cannot be properly criticized without the inhibiting effect of GABA. Many anti-anxiety medications inhibit the breakdown of GABA and thus increase its activity. In vertebrate owners, GABA acts as a neurotransmitter in inhibitory synapses in the brain. GABA binds to receptor on the mems of presynaptic and post-synaptic nerve cells. The connection of the molecule to the receptor leads to the opening of selective ion canals – potassium canals or chlorine ducts. The exit of positively charged potassium ions from the cell, or the introduction of negatively charged chlorine ions into the cell, increases the electrical potential difference between the cell’s interior and the excellular solution, a condition known as hyperplorization.
As a result, the membrane tension of the cell’s interior moves away from the threshold value needed to induce a nerve impulse. This is how GABA is used as an inhibitory neurotransmitter.
GABA is derived from the amino acid glutamate using the enzyme L-glutamic acid decarboxylase and with the help of a phosphoric form of vitamin B6 used as a co-factor. It should be noted that glutamate acts as a major stimulating neurotransmitter in the central nervous system: About 80% of the synapses in the brain use glutamate as a neurotransmitter. That is, the most common inhibitor neuro-reflyst is a derivative of the most common stimulative neuroscirous.
Following its inhibiting effect on neural activity, the GABA neurodetric agent plays a major role in some forms of psychopathology. For example, low levels of GABA can lead to neuronal hypertension, which is manifested in a feeling of anxiety.
In nerve cells that release the soothing neurotransmitter Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) cannabinoids will prevent (suppress) further release of the soothing neurotransmitter and thus the overall effect will be stimulating.
Glutamic acid is one of the 20 most common amino acids in nature.
Glutamic acid is not an “essential amino acid”, since the cells of the human body are able to produce this acid themselves from another amino acid. In addition to the structural role of glutamic acid as an ingredient in the protein, the acid also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain and as a starting material for the formation of GABA, another neurotransmitter.
The glutamic acid is similar in composition to aspartic acid, another amino acid, but in its shire there are two groups of methylene (CH2) and not one. The resin of glutamic acid is therefore composed of two methylene groups and a carboxyl group (COOH). Glutamic and aspartic acids are the only amino acids with acidic residuals. The carboxyl group tends to lose its hydrogen atom, hence its acidity. When this occurs, it becomes a carbonoxyte (-COO) lyon, and then the compound is called glutamate. This happens in neutral pH. Glutamate’s electrical charge is -1, due to the negative carbaxylt ion. The density of the material is 1.46 grams per gram per gram, soluble in water – 7.5 grams per liter. The amino acid glutamine is a derivative of the glutamic acid. Its remnant consists of a wealthy group (CONH) instead of a carboxil group. It is formed when the glutamic acid reacts with ammonia. Due to the proximity between the two acids, there is a long symbol indicating glutamine or glutamic acid – as well as a short symbol – E.
In nerve cells that release the stimulant neurotransmitter GLUTAMATE (Glu) cannabeidol (CBD) will suppress and prevent the release of the stimulant neurotransmitter and thus the overall effect will be soothing.
In 1992, Professor Raphael Meshulam and his group isolated a new component of the brain, which he called Anandamide. The anandamide, which is a derivative of oily acid, differs in structure from the plant cannabinoid, and has the same activity profile as THC. Meshulam’s group isolated another endo-cannabinoid from the spleen 2-arachidonoyl glycerol 2AG.
The Breaks down anandamide and AG-2, thus ending their operation with a synapse quickly. Cannabidiol inhibits this enzyme (FAAH) and thus increases their pain-soothing activity of the cannabinoids, through the endocannabinoid receptors. and the 2AG are the two main endo-cannabinoids identified so far. This study not only helped establish the way cannabinoids work, but also promoted the understanding of cognition, appetite, memory and emotions. The work of many groups shows the involvement of the endocannabinoid in such processes. The importance of plant cannabinoids and endo-cannabinoids in many physiological processes and pathological conditions such as neuroprotection, sleep, vascular dilation, cancer, inflammation, breastfeeding, bone building and insulin-dependent diabetes.
A neurotransmitter formed in the synthesis of archival acid and ethanolamine. The origin of the name Anandamide is a connection between the word “ananda” in Sanskrit means “inner happiness”, a well-to-do extension that is the chemical residus in the molecule found. Anandamide (ANA), also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA), is a fatty acid neurotransmitter. Discovered in 1992 at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Anandamide is important for fetal development in pregnancy and is apparently related to feelings of happiness and joy. It is an endogenous cannabinoid and although it is relatively different from them in its chemical structure, it is similar in its lipopyllic properties to Phyto-cannabinoids found in cannabis, such as CBD and THC. To date, a number of neurotransmitter receptors have been found for anandamide in particular and cannabinoids in general, known among them CB1 CB2 and GRP55.
Unlike many neurotransmitters, the anandamide (like the rest of the cannabinoids) moves at the synaptic interval precisely from the post-synaptic nerve to the presynaptic nerve.
A diet of foods containing archidonic acid and other essential fatty acids and especially omega-3 affects the production of anandamide and other endocannbinoids in the brain.
Breaks down anandamide and AG-2, thus ending their operation with a synapse quickly. Cannabidiol inhibits this enzyme (FAAH) and thus increases their pain-soothing activity of the cannabinoids, through the endocannabinoid receptors.