The Entourage Effect of pCBs & terpenes

What is the Entourage Effect?‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎

Anyone who starts to learn and become interested in medical cannabis products and ‎‎CBD products ‎‎has heard the term ‎‎”Entourage Effect”.‎‎ ‎‎In the past, the subject was considered one that is dealt with only by medical cannabis consumers, but‎‎ ‎‎not so today, when ‎‎the CBD industry ‎‎breaches the boundaries of audiences and markets and when‎‎ the concept is not only theoretical but is expressed in a wide range of products and ‎‎the ‎‎nature of the ‎‎entire industry.

When discussing the entourage effect, it is important to remember two‎‎ things: ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎

1. Most prescription drugs available today are based on one molecule and one target protein.‎

2. There are currently two FDA-approved drugs ‎‎based on the two main ‎‎molecules in cannabis,‎‎ ‎‎the phytocannabinoids – THC‎‎ ‎‎and ‎‎CBD. ‎‎The first is called ‎‎”Marinol”‎‎ ‎‎and is based on THC and the ‎‎second ‎‎is‎‎ “Epidiolex”,‎‎ ‎‎which is based on pure ‎‎CBD. The oral spray “Sativex” contains CBD & THC in a 1:1 ratio between them. ‎

The cannabis plant,‎‎on the ‎‎other hand,‎‎ (on its two varieties – marijuana and hemp) contains‎‎ ‎‎more than 500 different ‎‎compounds‎‎.‎

‎‎Scientific truth or hypothesis ‎only?‎ ‎‎ ‎
‎The “Entourage Effect”‎‎ ‎‎is a hypothesis first proposed in the early 2000s,‎‎ ‎‎based on the idea that a 
whole ‎‎plant‎‎ should be more effective than taking an isolated molecule based on just ‎‎one‎‎ of the plant’s active‎‎ compounds.‎‎ ‎‎The hypothesis has been developed extensively since it was first introduced.‎‎ ‎‎Today,‎‎ ‎‎some scientists believe that different types of cannabis plant compounds or the combination of different molecules from the plant ‎‎(phytocannabinoids,‎‎ ‎‎terpenes, and flavonoids)‎‎ ‎‎can be more effective for specific conditions and symptoms ‎‎- as well as the type of ‎‎intoxication they can induce ‎‎based on their chemical ‎‎profiles.‎‎ In 1999, ‎‎researchers Prof. Shimon Ben-Shabat and Prof. Raphael Mechoulam noted for the first time that the cannabis plant may be preferable to different drugs thanks to the influence of entourage compounds.‎‎‎‎‎ ‎‎This hypothesis was based on their observations when they studied the endocannabinoid system.‎‎ They observed that some naturally produced ‎‎ ‎‎endocannabinoids‎‎ ‎‎(eCBs)‎‎ ‎‎‎‎in the body are more effective when‎‎ mixed‎‎ with‎‎ other inactive‎ compounds – the endogenous fatty acid glycerol esters. ‎

Endocannabinoids‎ are fatty acids that are naturally produced in the human body “On Demand” and affect us by binding to eCBs receptors across membranes of the different brain & immune cells.‎‎ ‎‎The two known and important eCBs are anandamide (AEA) and 2-AG.  ‎‎‎‎The role of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) in the body is to restore its systems to balance (Homeostasis) and for this, it produces eCBs from cell membranes when necessary ‎‎‎‎‎’‎‎ON DEMAND‎‎’.‎‎ ‎‎‎Phytocannabinoids (pCBs) are cannabinoids found in ‎‎the cannabis ‎‎plant (marijuana & hemp) that can mimic the action of the eCBs‎‎ ‎‎or‎‎ influence their action.‎‎ ‎‎ ‎

‎‎‎Interestingly, THC’s affinity ‎‎for eCBs receptors is higher compared to the affinity of ‎‎AEA ‎‎or ‎‎2-AG to ‎‎these receptors.‎‎ ‎

Is the entourage effect a synergy?‎ ‎‎ ‎
According to Prof. Mechoulam and Prof. Ben Shabat,‎‎ ‎‎
“natural products are biologically active… often accompanied by chemically related, although biologically inactive‎‎ ‎ingredients…  ‎‎investigations of the effect of the active ingredient in the presence of ‎‎its ‎‎‘entourage’‎‎ ‎‎‎‎compounds may lead to different results from those observed with the active ingredient only.”‎‎ ‎
Prof. Shimon Ben-Shabat and Prof. Raphael Mechoulam the pioneering researchers concluded that “this type of synergy may play a role in the prevailing (but not experimental) view that in some cases, whole plants are better medicines than purified isolated natural products.” ‎

An entourage effect: inactive endogenous fatty acid glycerol esters enhance 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol cannabinoid activity ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎

A few years later,‎‎ ‎‎researcher Dr Elizabeth Williamson ‎‎provided evidence‎‎ of the idea that ‎‎”a whole or partially purified extract of a plant offers benefits over one single ingredient”.‎‎ ‎‎One of the examples used in that study was the ability of‎‎ CBD ‎‎to weaken some of the side effects of ‎‎THC. Dr ‎‎Williamson concluded that. ‎‎”this synergistic effect would be very important if cannabis became a medicine by reducing the sometimes unwanted psychotropic side effects.”‎‎ ‎

Synergy and other interactions in phytomedicines‎‎ ‎‎ ‎

Cannabinoids in Clinical Practice

Does the Entourage Effect only exist in medical cannabis‎‎ products?
‎Of course not.‎‎ ‎‎The two main types of cannabis are the marijuana plant from which medical cannabis products are produced and the ‎‎Hemp‎‎ ‎‎plant from which CBD ‎‎is produced. ‎‎
Both types have the same molecular composition ‎‎in different‎‎ concentrations!‎‎ ‎‎It is quite possible that when the term “Entourage Effect” was coined in scientific research, it meant a very high concentration of THC about other cannabinoids including CBD, while in CBD products the psychoactive molecule THC Is only a small part of an Entourage. ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎

How does the entourage effect‎‎ work?‎ ‎‎ ‎
Although ‎‎some researchers have contributed to the entourage effect theory when referring to cannabis,‎‎ the most related scientist to do it extensively is‎‎ 
Dr Ethan Russo.‎‎
In his ‎‎2011 article “‎Taming THC: Potential Cannabis Synergy and Phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects”Dr Russo thoroughly presented the previous works on cannabinoid synergy,‎‎ ‎‎and mainly coined the term ‎‎ ‎‎“Entourage ‎‎Effect”,‎‎ ‎‎defining its mechanism.‎‎ ‎‎To explain how the entourage effect works, Dr Russo cited a 2009 study from Germany: ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎Approaching a new generation of phytopharmaceuticals,‎ which defined the behaviour of synergy in plant compounds in general, not only in cannabis. ‎‎He described four main mechanisms,‎‎ three of ‎which are ‎‎particularly relevant to‎‎ cannabis:

1.    Multiple target‎ ‎‎proteins‎‎ improve ‎‎the‎‎ effect of CBD:

Most‎ ‎often,‎‎ drugs work on one ‎‎target protein‎‎ ‎‎in our bodies,‎‎ creating a ‎‎specific effect.‎‎ ‎‎Multi-goal impact means that plant compounds can work on many targets simultaneously.‎‎ ‎

‎‎‎In cannabis, ‎‎a popular example will be the interaction of ‎‎THC & CBD‎‎ with a large number of target ‎‎proteins – A. Ion channels: ‎‎TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPA1, TRPM8, B. Orphan ‎‎receptors: GPR12, GPR18, ‎‎GPR55, C. Endocannabinoid System‎‎ receptors CB1CB2 ‎‎, and many other receptors,‎‎ ‎‎some of which are nuclear receptors that are transcription factors such as ‎ ‎‎PPARγ.‎‎ ‎‎This multi-goal can enhance the effects of‎‎ THC, ‎‎but as mentioned above,‎‎ ‎‎it is not only ‎‎THC. There are other ‎‎cannabinoids,‎‎ ‎‎terpenes, and perhaps even ‎‎flavonoids ‎‎that can also activate a large number of targets,‎‎ ‎‎thus improving the effects of purified THC or CBD. ‎‎ ‎One of the earliest published examples of the increased effects of ‎‎THC ‎‎when synergistically given with other plant compounds ‎‎was the comparison of pure THC ‎‎with full spectrum in the treatment‎‎ ‎‎of‎‎ ‎‎muscle ‎‎over-contraction.‎‎ Another study stated:‎‎”With ‎‎equal doses of ‎‎THC,‎‎ ‎‎whole-plant extraction ‎‎‎‎is considered more effective ‎‎‎‎as‎‎ an anti-convulsive‎‎ ‎‎than ‎‎‎‎the THC ‎‎alone”.

   2. ‎‎Molecular movement improves‎‎ ‎‎‎‎the effect‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎

The two main branches of pharmacology are pharmacodynamics [PD] (how ‎‎drugs affect your body) and ‎‎pharmacokinetics [PK] ‎‎(how your body affects medications and metabolises them and‎‎ the movement of drugs within the ‎‎body).‎‎ ‎

‎‎While the multiple effects of cannabis are first related‎‎ to ‎‎pharmacodynamics,‎‎ ‎‎the effects that improve the movement of cannabinoids in our bodies are related to pharmacokinetics.‎‎ ‎The effect that improves certain health aspects is caused by the interaction of molecules on a variety of protein targets in the human body.‎‎ ‎

The effects that improve the movement of ‎‎the pCBs ‎‎as a whole are the way a group of molecules ‎‎moves‎‎ ‎in the human body more efficiently than if one of them is‎‎ moving alone.‎‎ ‎‎A prominent example of a molecular movement that improves therapeutic influence is demonstrated in that CBD inhibits the FAAH enzyme that metabolises & degrades the eCB anandamide (AEA), thereby increasing its concentration in the blood and brain. ‎‎ ‎

‎‎The cannabinoids – Cannabichromene ‎‎‎‎(CBC)‎‎ and‎‎‎‎ ‎‎cannabigerol ‎‎(CBG) ‎‎inhibit the reuptake ‎‎ ‎‎of anandamide (AEA), ‎‎thereby increasing its action in synapses.‎‎ Another ‎‎example of effects that improve pCB molecular movement in the body is also demonstrated by the monoterpenes ‎‎limonene, myrcene, ‎‎and ‎pinene. ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎

‎‎These terpenes are biologically active‎‎ ‎‎and can cause relaxation of the airways in the lungs.‎‎ ‎‎When taken as separate molecules it does not cause a large physical reaction ‎‎(at least not in low doses), but‎‎ ‎‎when inhaled, these terpenes together with pCBs,‎‎ ‎‎the absorption of the cannabinoids through the lungs can be improved by the presence of these airway expanding terpenes.‎‎ ‎

Limonene-induced activation of A2A adenosine receptors reduces airway inflammation and reactivity in a mouse model of asthma‎

A review of the relaxant effect of various medicinal plants on tracheal smooth muscle, their possible mechanism(s), and potency‎.

 3.‎‎ ‎Reducing‎‎ ‎‎the side effects
Reducing‎‎ ‎‎the side effects ‎‎”can be reached when an ingredient contained in a herbal extract ‎‎’neutralises’‎‎ or‎‎ destroys‎‎ ‎‎a toxic component, ‎‎and ‎‎therefore produces better efficacy compared to a drug in which a single isolated ingredient.”‎‎ ‎

Synergy Research: Approaching a new generation of phytopharmaceuticals

Several cannabis ‎side effects are related to THC ‎‎and some cannabis compounds may help in dealing with these side effects. The‎‎ best and most popular ‎‎is ‎‎CBD oil.

‎‎a large and growing amount of studies was recently collected that support CBD’s ability  ‎to weaken side effects of ‎‎THC, especially ‎‎impaired short-term memory: ‎‎Does Cannabis Composition Matter? Differential Effects of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Human ‎‎Cognition 

Cannabidiol‎ as a Potential Treatment ‎for Anxiety Disorders‎‎and psychomimetic effects (such‎‎ as paranoia‎‎ and social‎‎ ‎‎withdrawal): Clinical and Preclinical Evidence for Functional Interactions of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol ‎ ‎


‎‎Terpenes and cannabinoids share the Entourage Effect‎‎ ‎

In the above-mentioned‎‎ paper, ‎‎‎‎Dr‎‎ Ethan Russo also added‎‎ a new study ‎‎direction: ‎‎ “‎‎Perhaps it is not just ‎‎the interaction of‎‎ CBD,‎‎ ‎‎but also compounds ‎‎such as other ‎‎cannabinoids such as‎‎ ‎CBG.‎‎ CBC,‎‎ terpenes, and flavonoids ‎‎play a role in the ‎‎entourage effect”.‎‎ ‎‎‎Terpenes are aromatic molecules responsible for smell and taste in most plants, but they also have medicinal activity and can affect the human body in many ways. ‎‎ ‎

‎‎‎One of the unique things about cannabis plants is the variance in the terpenes (there are almost ‎‎ ‎‎200 ‎‎‎‎different terpenes in cannabis). ‎‎According to Dr‎‎. Russo,‎‎ ‎‎the ‎‎high concentration ‎‎of terpenes in certain ‎‎chemovars‎‎ ‎‎may determine their ‎‎effects.‎‎ ‎‎These terpenes may affect whether ‎‎a specific‎‎ “strain”‎‎ ‎‎will ‎‎be soothing [Myrcene] or stimulating [Pinen] and‎‎ ‎‎whether it will be better ‎‎for ‎‎situations and symptoms such as‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎pain, inflammation, ‎‎ ‎‎anxiety,‎‎ ‎epilepsy, or depression & PTSD.‎‎ ‎‎Some examples of the potential synergy of cannabinoids, terpenes, or terpenoids proposed include: ‎‎ ‎

• THC + Pinene = Expands bronchial airways in the lungs

• THC + Limonene + Linalool + Pinene = Alzheimer’s disease treatment

• THC + Linalool + Myrcene = Muscle relaxant

‎• ‎‎CBD + Limonene + Linalool = ‎‎ ‎‎Anxiolytic ‎

‎• CBD + Linalool = ‎‎Anti-convulsant ‎

‎• CB‎‎D ‎‎ ‎‎+ ‎‎Limonene‎‎ ‎‎ = ‎‎Potentiates the immune system ‎

‎• CBD +‎‎ ‎‎Pinene‎‎ ‎‎ = ‎‎Anti-inflammatory

‎• THC + ‎‎CBD + Linalool = ‎‎Pain relief.

Although there is evidence of cannabinoid synergy (mainly ‎‎‎‎THC‎‎ ‎‎& ‎‎ ‎‎‎CBD as well as CBG & CBD),‎‎ ‎‎‎‎the terpenoid-cannabinoid synergy,‎‎ ‎‎however, is‎‎ ‎‎‎‎supported only by little evidence so far.‎‎ ‎‎But this may be due to a lack of research on the‎‎ subject.

‎‎‎Is the Entourage Effect present in ‎‎CBD‎ ‎‎products that have less ‎‎than ‎0.3%THC?

Of course, it does, CBD ‎‎‎‎products ‎‎contain the full spectrum of ‎‎ingredients found in the cannabis plant (hemp):‎‎ ‎125 ‎‎Phytocannabinoids (the‎ ‎‎main of‎‎ which is ‎‎CBD)‎‎ and the concentration of the psychomimetic molecule THC‎‎‎ ‎‎does not exceed ‎‎‎‎0.3%), ‎‎Hundreds ‎‎of terpenes, and dozens of flavonoids.‎‎  ‎‎The low concentration of THC allows these products to be sold legally in countries where CBD is approved by the health authorities because this minimal amount of THC is not in any way dangerous and does not cause intoxication. ‎‎‎The Entourage ‎‎Effect, ‎‎on the ‎‎other hand, and the synergistic action of the molecules will indeed exist‎‎ although it is possible that at a ‎‎lower intensity.‎‎ ‎‎Our experience shows that the entourage effect in the full spectrum has a better effect on depression and stress than purified CBD products. ‎‎ ‎

CBD and individual customer tailoring

Some people prefer pure CBD to any other product.‎‎ ‎‎‎Some people react badly to the‎‎THC‎‎ ‎‎molecule. ‎‎Even if it is present in a very small amount,‎‎ ‎‎some suffer from symptoms that the pure molecule will take better care of.‎‎ ‎‎For ‎‎example, ‎‎people with anxiety report that pure ‎‎CBD‎‎ ‎‎products ‎‎are preferable to their tastes to CBD‎‎ ‎‎‎products with a full spectrum.‎

From our accumulated‎‎ experience:

Full ‎‎Spectrum products are suitable: For strengthening the immune system, balancing blood pressure, treating depression, balancing appetite, and lowering stress.‎‎
Pure ‎‎CBD products are suitable for anxiety, migraines, and cluster headaches, muscle, and bone & back pain, as well as ADHD. ‎‎ ‎

Our daily experience of accompanying and guiding thousands of consumers who experience self-medication using CBD oil and sharing users’ experiences [Online Questionnaires] helps us understand in-depth the differences between the different products and their suitability to the customer (personalised medicine).‎‎ ‎

Soon, CBD‎‎‎‎ ‎‎products ‎‎will become more diverse through different ‎‎(and‎‎ higher) ‎‎concentrations‎‎ ‎‎of minor cannabinoids that are currently present in full-spectrum products only in very low concentrations. For example,‎‎ ‎‎products that have a high concentration of ‎‎the ‎molecule‎‎ ‎‎‎‎CBG‎‎‎‎ ‎‎(Cannabigerol)‎‎, CBN (Cannabinol), or CBC (Cannabichromene)  in combination with ‎‎ ‎‎CBD. ‎‎ ‎‎The market is already available in this area, and in this respect, ‎‎people’s reports‎‎ can already be seen on certain features characteristic of these products and their‎‎ medical benefits.‎

What does the entourage effect mean for consumers?‎‎
One ‎‎of the main consequences of the entourage effect on consumers will be the way they choose cannabis products.‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎
If the cannabinoid & terpene profiles of cannabis plants determine their impact,‎‎ ‎‎we will need a system to catalogue and group ‎‎these products.‎‎ ‎‎In an ideal‎‎ world, after ‎‎ ‎‎much research has been done on the entourage effect,‎‎ ‎‎‎it will be possible to group cannabis products for the most suitable use and treatments for situations and symptoms such as pain,‎‎ ‎‎‎‎sleep disorders,‎‎ ‎‎nausea‎‎, and headaches.‎‎ ‎‎They can be seen as products with relaxing combinations suitable for evening and towards‎‎ sleep, as‎‎ ‎opposed to ‎‎stimulating combinations for‎‎ ‎‎the morning,‎‎ ‎‎recreation‎‎, or work.‎‎ ‎‎The names of current “strains” or the terminology ‎‎”Indica”‎‎ for the night and‎‎ ‎‎”Sativa”‎‎ for the day ‎‎‎will not define their true ‎‎effects.‎‎ They refer only to morphological differences at best,‎‎ ‎‎and often completely ignore their ‎‎chemical variant profiles [chemovar].‎‎ ‎‎Moreover,‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎all medical cannabis today is hybrid and complex.‎

Frequently Asked Questions [FAQs]‎‎ ‎

Does the “Entourage effect” also exist in‎‎ CBD‎‎ ‎‎oil that is sourced from the hemp plant?‎‎ ‎‎ ‎

Of course, it does.‎‎ ‎ ‎‎The hemp plant ‎‎is a cannabis subspecies that contains the same compounds as the marijuana‎‎ plant.‎‎ The ‎‎concept of ‎‎the ‎‎”Entourage effect” ‎‎comes from the ‎‎medical cannabis world, but today,‎‎ ‎‎when ‎‎CBD‎‎ ‎‎‎‎products ‎‎also have a full spectrum hemp oil of ‎‎the ingredients in the plant, the concept also applies to them.‎‎ ‎‎It is important to remember that ‎‎the entourage’s two main ‎‎” members”‎‎ ‎‎are the phytocannabinoids THC and CBD found in these plants at ‎‎high concentrations relative to the other ingredients.‎

Does the‎‎“Entourage effect”‎‎ ‎‎also exist in hemp seed‎‎ oil?‎‎ ‎‎ ‎

No,‎‎ ‎‎Hemp seed oil is sold in a food additive that contains no cannabinoids at all but other natural ingredients such as amino acids and omega fatty acids.‎‎ ‎‎The active ingredients found in cannabis,‎‎ ‎‎hemp, and marijuana,‎‎ ‎‎are derived from the resin produced in glandular trichomes [GTs] on stalks and leaves.‎‎ ‎

Does CBD oil also have terpenes and flavonoids? ‎‎

‎‎Yes, Full Spectrum Oil is an initial extraction ‎‎‎ ‎‎of all active ingredients found in the flower of the cannabis plant.‎‎ ‎‎ There are ‎‎125 ‎‎cannabinoids,‎‎ ‎‎dozens of flavonoids, and about 200 terpenes in this extract.

What is the difference between the entourage effect of medical cannabis versus the entourage effect of ‎‎CBD‎‎ products?

In the products of medical cannabis companies, the main cannabinoid is the molecule that has intoxicating properties and other compounds (including CBD) are found in a lower amount. ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎

‎‎The presence of the molecule‎‎ THC ‎‎in large quantities causes side effects in some patients to the point of disrupting daily routines.‎‎ ‎‎In CBD products‎‎, ‎‎the main molecule is‎‎ ‎‎CBD while the ‎‎THC molecule is in the‎‎ (minimum)‎‎ ‎‎quantity ‎‎ ‎‎that does not exceed ‎‎0.3% w/w. ‎‎In these products, there is an entourage effect without a psychoactive ‎‎effect (intoxicating, “‎‎HIGH”) and the daily routine does not get interrupted.‎‎ As you can see in the attached table, the molecular composition of both varieties [marijuana & hemp] is the same, but their relative concentrations are different. ‎‎ ‎

Is there one entourage effect or does each product have its Entourage‎‎ Effect?

In the medical cannabis world, for years producers have been looking for a way to improve certain strains of cannabis whose entourage effect is considered particularly effective.‎‎ ‎‎This is an almost impossible task when the main form of consumption is smoking-dried inflorescences.‎‎ ‎‎Today,‎‎ ‎‎using innovative technologies, all plant compounds can be isolated and diluted by any carrier oil in a consistent and measured manner according‎‎ to a ‎‎”pre-order”.‎‎

How can we know the exact contents of the product ingredients?

As ‎in ‎‎any market also in the‎‎ CBD market, it is, unfortunately, possible to find ‎‎ companies that mislead the public and market products whose product contents do not match the written and guaranteed labels on the packaging.‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎We have become accustomed for years in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries to read the ingredients on the packaging knowing that the companies would not dare lie and risk losing their licence or getting sued.‎‎ ‎‎As the ‎‎CBD industry ‎‎began its path amid ‎‎”legal fog”‎‎ ‎‎over the legality of the molecule,‎‎ ‎‎authorities have not yet set regulatory rules for oversight.‎‎ ‎

So what can we do?‎‎ ‎‎Looking for a ‎‎reliable‎ ‎‎CBD company. ‎‎ ‎

CBD ‎‎company stands firmly behind their products and this position is expressed with maximum transparency towards customers.‎‎ ‎‎A ‎‎third-party lab testing page‎‎ is the most important page on the CBD company’s website‎‎ in which you are ‎‎interested.‎‎ ‎‎There you will find the certainty that each batch that came out of the factory is checked‎‎ by an independent body.‎


·     Synergy and other interactions in phytomedicines

·     Russo E. B. (2011). Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. British journal of pharmacology, 163(7), 1344–1364.

·     Wagner, H., & Ulrich-Merzenich, G. (2009). Synergy research: approaching a new generation of phytopharmaceuticals. Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 16(2-3), 97–110.

·     Synergy research: approaching a new generation of phytopharmaceuticals

·     Limonene-induced activation of A2A adenosine receptors reduces airway inflammation and reactivity in a mouse model of asthma
·   A review of the relaxant effect of various medicinal plants on tracheal smooth muscle, their possible mechanism(s), and potency

·     Does Cannabis Composition Matter? Differential Effects of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Human Cognition

·     Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

·     Clinical and Preclinical Evidence for Functional Interactions of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol

·     Pharmacological Foundations of Cannabis Chemovars

·     Chemical Composition of Two Different Lavender Essential Oils and Their Effect on Facial Skin Microbiota

·     The ‘entourage effect’ or ‘hodge-podge hashish’: the questionable rebranding, marketing, and expectations of cannabis polypharmacy



·     Absence of Entourage: Terpenoids Commonly Found in Cannabis sativa Do Not Modulate the Functional Activity of Δ9-THC at Human CB1 and CB2 Receptors

·     Role of Cannabinoids and Terpenes in Cannabis-Mediated Analgesia in Rats

·     Cannabis sativa terpenes are cannabimimetic and selectively enhance cannabinoid activity

·     The Case for the Entourage Effect and Conventional Breeding of Clinical Cannabis: No “Strain,” No Gain


Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD): Can this concept explain the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions?