Diabetic nephropathy | Vascular kidney disease | Thrombotic microangiopathy | Henfritty syndrome | Glomerolonephritis in | Diseases of the type Pauci immune glomerulonephritis | Hestoria Henrotic syndrome | Tovalo-interstational diseases | Interstitial diseases | Kidney tumours Gout | Kidney failure
Treatment of Kidney diseases with CBD
The kidney is responsible for a variety of important functions, and damage to it will impair the creation and secretion of hormones including:
Erythropoietin, the hormone that encourages the formation of red blood cells.
Processing Vitamin D is performed at the kidneys for its active hormonal form.
Balancing blood volume in a variety of pathways, including the Renin-Angiotensin pathway.
Secretion of water and waste materials to the urinal liquid.
Maintaining the acid-base balance [pH] in the blood & body by secreting different ions into the urine.
Due to kidney injury, these mechanisms will be impaired and therefore a variety of symptoms are found in reactive injuries such as:
Anemia due to lack of erythropoietin secretion.
Ticket or lacking minerals in the bones, due to lack of vitamin D.
Hypertension will result from the inability of the kidney to secrete the desired amount of fluid or by excessive secretion of renin, accumulation of toxins and acids or bases.
Edema is due to the accumulation of sodium in the kidney.
Kidney injury can be simplified, regional, tubular, or glamorous. Each form of injury has different symptoms. In the absence of treatment, many kidney injuries can lead to chronic or acute kidney failure. Kidney diseases are a collection of kidney-damaging diseases that can be divided into “acute reactive injury” and “chronic kidney disease”. The kidneys may be damaged by a variety of factors inside or outside the kidney. Kidney disease can be turbulent and difficult, but chronic stages can be asymptomatic and manifest themselves only in laboratory tests.
Renal Disease Factors:
The most common cause of kidney disease is diabetes. Due to the great advances that have been achieved in diabetes treatments recently, there is also a significant decrease in the number of patients with kidney disease.
Another common cause of kidney disease is high blood pressure. 15% of dialysis patients suffer from kidney disease due to high blood pressure.
Infections by bacteria, fungi, or viruses.
Damage done by synthetic medicines. The greatest damage to the kidneys is caused by large doses of analgesics (especially NSAIDS drugs) and antibiotics.
Structural and heredential genetic diseases of the kidney itself.
Blockages in the organs under the kidney: Uretics, bladder, urethra, prostate gland in men, and the female reproductive system. Blockages in these areas prevent the outflow of urine from the kidneys and impair their functioning.
Damage to the blood supply to the kidney. Such an injury can have various causes such as massive blood loss, dehydration, and heart failure.
Endocannabinoid System & the treatment of kidney diseases
Studies have found that there are endocannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 in different cells of the kidney. The hypothesis leading the new studies is that activating them with phytocannabinoids will protect the kidney and help repair the damage.
Cannabidiol improves kidney function, soothes pain, and prevents inflammation as a result of the delayed release of inflammatory cytokines. It may also alleviate a headache caused by impaired kidney function, help lower blood pressure, and maintain heart activity. CBD allows relaxation and better sleep and strengthens the immune system. For cancer patients, cannabidiol prevents kidney damage caused by Cisplatin, a substance that contains the element platinum and is one of the most active and important components of chemotherapy.
A complication of diabetes (type 1 & 2) causes a decrease in kidney function to a state of terminal renal failure. In the diabetic state, due to the high glucose concentration that disrupts the hormonal balance in the body, there is an overflow in the outgoing afferent arteriole and increased hydrostatic pressure.
CBD as a treatment of kidney disease:
Recent studies have shown that the endocannabinoid system affects kidney function. Treatment by the CB1 antagonist – AM251 improved the state of the kidneys in obese mice because the ECM is involved in energy and lipid homeostasis that can also be affected by kidney function. The CB1 receptor is a major mediator for the creation of the fibrosis of adrenal tissue (scarring) in chronic kidney diseases.
A unique antagonist of CB1 receptors, Rimonabant improved and corrected the state of adrenal tissue by preventing the penetration of white blood cells responsible for the formation of fibrosis. This is because CB1 receptors play an important role in fibroblasts and are, therefore, an important goal for the development of medicines to cure chronic kidney disease. Kidney destruction in diabetes is associated with endocannabinoid dysfunction. An increase in the expression of the CB1 receptor and GPR55 receptor in the tubular cells close to the core in the kidney is caused by an increase in glucose and albumin concentrations. This is the diabetic status.
CBD blocks (antagonize) the “orphan receptor” GPR55 and this is probably one of the important mechanisms of action that explain the medical therapeutic effect of CBD on the kidney. The activation of the peripheral ECS receptor – CB2 works to prevent the lowering of the albumin in the urine and the loss of podocyte proteins. (Podocytes are cells in the Bowman capsule).
Podocytes are specialized epithelial cells that cover the outer surfaces of glomerular capillaries. Unique cell junctions, known as slit diaphragms, which feature nephrin and Neph family proteins in addition to components of adherents, tight, and gap junctions, connect adjacent podocyte foot processes.
Activating CB2 receptors will protect against chronic kidney disease. Moreover, CBD is an inhibitor of the TRPV1 cation channel. The autoimmune aspects of kidney diseases can be treated by antagonists of TRPV1 and CB2. TRPV1 is a cation channel that acts as a sensor for inflammatory and toxic signals. The main natural agonists of TRPV1 are Capsaicin, (the “hot” substance of chilli) and protons that are activated in inflammatory conditions. TRPV1 and CB2 antagonists have therapeutic potential for the treatment of chronic kidney disease.
CBD as a natural treatment of kidney disease:
- Suppression of Cytokine release that destroys & damaged kidney cells
- Lowers the expression of genes encoding inflammatory proteins
- Painkiller that helps the healing process
- Lowers toxic effects to the kidney tissue
- Treats kidney functions
- Allows mental relaxation and better sleep that are important for the healing process.
It was shown recently that kidney diseases are associated with the dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system.
CBD is one of the main regulators of the endocannabinoid system. Cannabidiol protects healthy kidney tissue, prevents inflammation, prevents and weakens autoimmune response onset and the formation of non-functional tissues in kidney disease. CBD can be a particularly effective treatment for those who suffer from many kidney diseases.
Other Kidney diseases that CBD may be useful in treating:
Vascular Kidney Diseases:
Thrombotic microangiopathy: This disease is characterized by damage caused to capillaries in the kidney. The loss of endothelial cells (that cover blood vessels from within). recruitment of blood neutrophils (granulated white cells), anemia (loss of RBCs, and deformed morphology of these cells as well as an increase in LDH, hematuria, proteinuria, and low urine secretion.
Nephrotic Syndrome: Hematuria is the dominant element and causes a sharp disorder in renal function accompanied by a decrease in urine output accompanied by fluid accumulation in the body – resulting in edema and hypertension.
Several diseases that cause this syndrome that will be listed below:
Glomerulonephritis is acute post-infectious: It is a more common disease in children, which tends to appear 1-4 weeks after infection by a pathogen, most often Streptococcus bacteria. During this period, the body produces antibodies against the pathogen, which will eventually cause kidney problems. These are diseases of the type “Pause immune glomerulonephritis”.
These diseases are characterized by the existence of ANCA antibodies, which act against neutrophils.
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are a group of autoantibodies, mainly of the IgG type, against antigens in the cytoplasm of neutrophil granulocytes (the most common type of white blood cell) and monocytes. They are detected as a blood test in several autoimmune disorders but are particularly associated with systemic vasculitis, so-called ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV).
Anti GBM glomerulonephritis is a disease that appears mainly in older people and is characterized by symptoms of acute nephritis. Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease is a rare small vessel vasculitis that affects glomerular capillaries, pulmonary capillaries, or both. Most patients present with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, although some patients may present with relatively mild kidney impairment.
IgA nephropathy (Berger’s disease) is the most common form of glomerulonephritis. The clinical picture of this disease is characterized by recurrent events of hematuria that appear near the infection or after considerable physical exercise.
Hereditary glomerular diseases manifested in hematuria:
Alport syndrome: an inherited disease that manifests itself in progressive nephrites, which begins to manifest itself between the ages of 5-20, and is accompanied by deafness and visual disorders. The disease is associated with a defect in collagen type 4 production. Some mutations are X-linked, and then the impact is in one of the chains of collagen type 4, and others are autosomal and are characterized by damage to chains 3 or 4. Since the most common triad in the basal membrane is 3-4-5, the disease causes severe damage to the structure of the membrane, which develops into kidney failure. The existence of foam cells can be seen in the microscope. The podocytes look slightly flatter, and the significant change is in the thickness of the membrane– there are thin areas and thickened areas, and the membrane gets a split appearance. Alport syndrome is usually defined by massive proteinuria, with proteins being found over 3.5 grams of protein per day in urine. The syndrome includes a variety of symptoms such as decreased concentration of protein in the blood. peripheral and watering edema – due to the increased protein secretion and especially albumin, the oncotic pressure inside the blood vessels decreases, and therefore fluids pass from the blood vessels to the intercellular tissue.
Thin membrane disease: Another hereditary disease that causes hematuria- the membrane looks thin throughout.
Fabry’s disease: a rare hereditary disease, in which it is possible to identify precipitation generated by the lysosomes of the cells – zebra bodies. The disease is due to a lack of enzyme 5 alpha-galactosidase: Nagar tsermid (the disease is X-linked transmitted). As a result, glycolipids accumulate in lysosomes, there is the construction of the arteries and a decrease in blood flow to the tissues. The accumulation of the substance causes in the first stage of hematuria and proteinuria, then disorders of urinary concentration, Fanconi syndrome, and ultimately kidney failure. There is also the involvement of the skin (severe pain characterized by a feeling of “burning” in the extremities mainly), lack of sweating, changes in the cornea, ischemic heart disease, stroke events, psychological and psychiatric disorders.
Acute tubular necrosis:
Acute tubular necrosis is a condition that causes a lack of oxygen and blood flow to the kidneys, damaging them. Tube-shaped structures in the kidneys, called tubules, filter out waste products and fluid. These structures are damaged in acute tubular necrosis.
Two main causes for the formation of acute necrosis of the tubules: A cause related to the lack of oxygen as a result of the decrease in blood flow to the kidney can be due to various causes – massive bleeding, heart failure, etc. Cause-related to nephrotoxic poisoning – for example as a result of the use of various medications, myoglobin is released as a result of muscle destruction and becomes a kidney toxin.
Viral infections, which are common in the kidney in situations caused by the weakening of the immune system (e.g. after transplants and treatment for immune suppression), can appear in various inclusion bodies – the Polyomavirus which is normal in the pelvic region, causing the nucleus to grow and become more spoofy. The Adenovirus causes the appearance of large pleomorphic cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, while the Cytomegalovirus causes cells with two nuclei inside them.
Interstitial Kidney Disease:
Interstitial nephritis is a kidney disorder. The kidneys filter waste and extra fluid from the body. When you have interstitial nephritis, the spaces between tubules (small tubes) inside the kidney become inflamed. This reduces the kidneys’ ability to filter properly.
Diseases of the interstitium can be acute (and then will be characterized by edema) or chronic (characterized by fibrosis, calcifications). These diseases are usually due to systemic diseases that have damaged the tubular interstitial system of the kidney (collecting tubes). The tubules will not be attached– either as a result of the accumulation of fluids or sniffles or as a result of the presence of fibrosis, the appearance of granulomas, crystals, and more.
The tabula-interstitial disease can be the result of an inflammatory disease that comes through the blood, by poisoning, metabolic diseases, radiation, tumours such as myeloma, and more, including a disease that comes from the following urinary tract – ascending pyelonephritis: It is a urinary tract infection that has risen to the kidney – most commonly it is caused by the E. coli bacterium infection and in children, it may cause reflux of urine back to the kidney.
Cortical adenoma, oncocytoma, meta-nephrite adenoma, angiomyolipoma, Wilms tumour (nephroblastoma), ameloblastoma, clear cell sarcoma, rhabdoid tumour, renal cell carcinoma,
Gout is chronic arthritis resulting from metabolic disruption in the whole body that manifests itself in an increase in uric acid levels in the blood, a condition called hyperuricemia. The damage to the patient is caused when over the years this acid accumulates in the joints, and then arthritis is formed there – or in the kidneys, where it forms stones.
Acute Renal Failure (ARF)
Its newer name is Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a rapid loss of all kidney functions. The causes of this can be a lack of blood supply to the kidney, which causes ischemic damage to the kidney, exposure to various toxins, and other injuries.